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Inhibition from molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) is thought to play an important role in cerebellar function by sharpening the precision of Purkinje cell spike output. Yet the coding features of MLIs during behavior are poorly understood. To study MLI activity, we used in vivo Ca2+ imaging in head-fixed mice during the performance of a rhythmic motor behavior, licking during water consumption. MLIs were robustly active during lick-related movement across a lobule-specific region of the cerebellum showing high temporal correspondence within their population. Average MLI Ca2+ activity strongly correlated with movement rate but not to the intentional, or unexpected, adjustment of lick position or to sensory feedback that varied with task condition. Chemogenetic suppression of MLI output reduced lick rate and altered tongue movements, indicating that activity of these interneurons not only encodes temporal aspects of movement kinematics but also influences motor outcome pointing to an integral role in online control of rhythmic behavior.
The cerebellum helps fine-tune coordinated motor actions via signaling from projection neurons called Purkinje cells. Molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) provide powerful inhibition onto Purkinje cells, but little is understood about how this inhibitory circuit is engaged during behavior or what type of information is transmitted through these neurons. Our work establishes that MLIs in the lateral cerebellum are broadly activated during movement with calcium activity corresponding to movement rate. We also show that suppression of MLI output slows and disorganizes the precise movement pattern. Therefore, MLIs are an important circuit element in the cerebellum allowing for accurate motor control.