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While it is generally appreciated that learning involves the structural rearrangement of neuronal circuits, the underlying orchestration of molecular events that drives these changes is not as well understood. Recent studies on the spatiotemporal organization of synaptic signaling events have provided new insights into the biochemical underpinnings of various expressions of structural neuronal plasticity, as well as the functional consequences that emerge because of the particular behavior of the molecules involved. In particular, activity patterns of and interplay among a class of morphogenic signaling proteins, the Rho GTPases, and their downstream signals, are found to be critical for linking neuronal activity with various forms of neuronal plasticity. We review recent findings on this topic and discuss their physiological implications.